The key to getting insights on how modern governments work, or how modern governments are supposed to work (in an ideal situation), lies in understanding the concept of separation of powers. Under the doctrine of separation of powers, the government has three arms. The first one is the executive arm. The second arm is the legislative arm. The third arm is the judicial arm.
In an ideal situation, it is the legislative arm that should be making the laws. The members of this arm are elected by the people, to make laws on behalf of the people. It is therefore said that the laws they ultimately come up with are actually laws that are made by the people – all the people. The legislature also has an oversight role: over things like pecuniary matters where it approves or disapproves budgets.
In an ideal situation, it is the executive arm that should be implementing the laws. If the executive arm limits itself to only implementing the laws, or helping with the implementation of the laws (and judicial orders), then the nation in question starts experiencing the rule of law. It becomes a just, peaceful and prosperous nation.
In an ideal situation, it is the judicial arm that should be interpreting the laws, and applying the laws to solve disputes. The court orders issued by the judicial arm are then implemented by the legislative arm.Full Review